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10 April 2006

HW# Name Surname Student ID Lecturer CRN
1 Deniz Sak 020040525 Özgür Ulas Kirlangic 20454

Question 1- What is the difference between hardware and software?

Answer 1-Hardware refers to objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips. In contrast, software is untouchable. Software exists as ideas, concepts, and symbols, but it has no substance. Books provide a useful analogy. The pages and the ink are the hardware, while the words, sentences, paragraphs, and the overall meaning are the software. A computer without software is like a book full of blank pages -- you need software to make the computer useful just as you need words to make a book meaningful. Software refers to computer instructions or data. Anything that can be stored electronically is software. The storage devices and display devices are hardware. The terms software and hardware are used as both nouns and adjectives. For example, you can say: "The problem lies in the software," meaning that there is a problem with the program or data, not with the computer itself. You can also say: "It's a software problem." The distinction between software and hardware is sometimes confusing because they are so integrally linked. Clearly, when you purchase a program, you are buying software. But to buy the software, you need to buy the disk (hardware) on which the software is recorded.

Question 2- What is the difference between system software and application software?

Answer 2- System software consists of low-level programs that interact with the computer at a very basic level. This includes operating systems, compilers, and utilities for managing computer resources. Application software is also called end-user programs. It includes games, database programs, word processors, and spreadsheets. Applications software sits on top of systems software in the computer because it is unable to run without the operating system and system utilities.

Question 3-Explain the purpose of the power-on self-test (POST)?

Answer 3-The power-on self test is the series of system integrity tests that a computer goes through every time it is started (cold boot) or restarted (warm boot). These tests verify that vital system components, such as the memory, are functioning properly. Bios conducts a Power-on self test to check the input output system for operability. On the PC, the main duties of POST are handled by the main BIOS, which may hand some of these duties to other programs designed to initialize very specific peripheral devices, notably for video and SCSI initialization.

Question 4-What are the advantages of multitasking?

Answer 4- In operating systems the capability to execute more than one application at a time. A multitasking is accomplished by a foreground application and one or more background applications. There are two basic types of multitasking: preemptive and cooperative. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system parcels out CPU time slices to each program. Preemptive multitasking enables the operating system to regain control if an application stops working. In cooperative multitasking, each program can control the CPU for as long as it needs it. If a program is not using the CPU, however, it can allow another program to use it temporarily. OS/2, Windows 95, Windows NT, the Amiga operating system and UNIX use preemptive multitasking, whereas Microsoft Windows 3.x and the MultiFinder (for Macintosh computers) use cooperative multitasking.

Question 5-Explain the difference between full backup and an incremental backup?

Answer 5- Full backup is the starting point for all other backups, and contains all the data in the folders and files that are selected to be backed up. Because the full backup stores all files and folders, frequent full backups result in faster and simpler restore operations. An incremental backup stores all files that have changed since the last full, differential or incremental backup. The advantage of an incremental backup is that it takes the least time to complete. However, during a restore operation, each incremental backup is processed, which could result in a lengthy restore job. Incremental backup provides a much faster method of backing up data than repeatedly running full backups. During an incremental backup only the files that have changed since the most recent backup are included. That is where it gets its name: each backup is an increment since the most recent backup.

Question 6-How do commercial software, shareware, freeware, and public domain software differ?

Answer 6-Commercial software can be bought before using it, shareware can be tried before buying and freeware is the free software which can not be sold or copied. That commercial shareware and freeware are types of copyrighted software. On the other hand, public domain software is not copyrighted; there are no restrictions on using, copying, altering or selling the software.

Question 7- Explain the types of compression algorithms?

Answer 7- Compression is reducing the file size of multimedia software. There are two types of compression; lossless and lossy. Lossless algorithms do not change the content of a file. If you compress a file and then decompress it, it has not changed. The following algorithms are lossless: CCITT group 3 & 4 compressions, Flate/deflate compression, Huffman compression, LZW compression, RLE compression. Lossy algorithms achieve better compression ratios by selectively getting rid of some of the information in the file. Such algorithms can be used for images or sound files but not for text or program data. The following algorithms are lossy: JPEG compression.


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